Contents in bullet points
1. Module name: Inspiring Experiences of Cultural Entrepreneurship in Europe
1.1. Cultural Entrepreneurship
A cultural entrepreneur is an entrepreneur who creates a business that is grounded in the arts, creatively inclined and/or is relevant to the cultural heritage of a specific community.
The goal of their business ventures is to address social problems by shifting belief systems and attitudes.
Cultural entrepreneurship has been characterized as a sub-set of social entrepreneurship.
Social entrepreneurs create businesses to address a social problem, for example, the privatization of fresh water, structural economic inequality and gentrification
Cultural entrepreneurship can be defined as specific activity of establishing cultural businesses and bringing to market cultural and creative products and services that encompass a cultural value but have also the potential to generate financial revenues.
Cultural entrepreneurs share the same goal of leveraging business to better society. However, instead of developing physical products and systems that foster social change, they create and share cultural products that present new ways of understanding social problems.
In other words, cultural entrepreneurs are business visionaries that want to transform the world for the better with creative and scalable business practices.
1.2. Cultural Entrepreneurship in EU
Cultureâ€™s intrinsic value is widely recognised. Beyond this value the cultural sector is an important driver of economic growth, job development and social inclusion.
In its impact assessment for the EU Creative Europe programme, the European Commission underlines the transformative economic and social power of culture: the cultural and creative sectors account for approximately 4.5% of the Union's GDP (2008) and employ some 3.8% of its workforce.
Within the EUâ€™s 2014-2020 Multiannual Financial Framework, funding for the EU Creative Europe programme was increased in view of the sectorâ€™s role in promoting smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. In May 2014 the EU Council adopted conclusions on cultural heritage, stressing that a holistic approach by the EU is required for cultural heritage, whilst underlining the sectorâ€™s role for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth in the framework of Europe 2020 strategy.
1.3. Cultural Heritage Entrepreneurship (CHE)
Cultural Heritage Entrepreneurship represents an important component of cultural entrepreneurship which becomes an important factor contributing to countries GDP, labour force market development, to export and import of goods and services (WIPO, 2003).
Although there is no consensus on CHE definition, the OECD EUROSTAT Entrepreneurship Indicator Project reveals six important areas for CHE efficiency and well functioning such as:
1. access to finance;
2. technology and R&D;
3. entrepreneurial capability;
4. market conditions;
5. regulatory framework;
6. entrepreneurial culture.
The main elements of CHE to be evaluated are:
â€˘ importance for regeneration and economic and social sustainable development, attaining efficiency at macro, micro, national, regional, European and international levels on short, medium and long terms;
â€˘ the knowledge absorption capacity vis-Ă -vis the â€śstate-of-the-artâ€ť level and interconnectivity with other economic, social and cultural domain in supporting innovation, competitiveness and good practices;
â€˘ as a complex, social, economic, environmental and knowledge asset, CH requires specific approaches and Medium â€“ size enterprises are very few.
CHE can be considered as a complex set of goods and services including the following main groups:
â€˘ tangible culture property (building, books, monuments, works of art, artefacts, landscapes);
â€˘ intangible and digital culture heritage (language and knowledge, folklore, oral history, traditions customs, aesthetic and spiritual beliefs etc) which are more difficult to preserve in comparison with physical cultural goods;
â€˘ cultural natural heritage (countryside, natural environment, flora and fauna, bio and geo diversity, cultural landscape which is an important part of tourist industry)
The decision to start-up a business in the field of CH activities is under the impact of numerous factors such as: a suitable market; financial obstacles; need to acquire new skills; difficulties due to real tape when starting a business.
The EU policy aiming at encouraging entrepreneurship and unlocking the growth potential of people and business has an important support of elaborated studies in the framework of European Commissionâ€™s Directorate General â€śEnterprise and Industriesâ€ť and â€śCultureâ€ť.
1.4. Experiences of Cultural Entrepreneurship â€“ GRISĂ™
The GrisĂą Association inaugurates the first creative factory in Emilia Romagna, having since 2012 a former fire station of 4000 square meters in the center of Ferrara. the allocation of spaces is banned, for free and temporary use, provided that the companies provide for the renovation of the premises.
Today, the spaces undergoing transformation house companies active in publishing, crafts and design, 3D modeling and museum services, architecture and photography, aeronautical and drone design. Some of these companies have moved from other cities to embark on their adventure in the GrisĂą space, and build an acceleration path for their business.
1.5. Experiences of Cultural Entrepreneurship â€“ GAL
The Local Action Group GAL Costa dei Trabocchi is a public / private partnership established in November 2016 (in the legal form of a non-profit Limited Liability Consortium Company), composed of public bodies, trade associations and private entities representing the economic and social fabric of the territory. The LAG aims to create employment and improve the general living conditions in the municipalities of the Costa dei Trabocchi.
This project acts for the constitution and consolidation of local supply chains by promoting the enhancement of the cultural and food and wine heritage of the area and the development of responsible cultural tourism.
It promotes the protection of the environment and the improvement of the quality of life, social inclusion and the development of services in marginal areas. It contributes to strengthening the competitiveness of the territory and of the sectors linked to its identity through an action of connection with other initiatives in the area.